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Vivek Express: ऊंचे नीचे रास्ते और मंज़िल तेरी दूर.

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Page#    1642 FAQs  next>>
Jul 20 (09:03)

Entry# 2257     
How to number a freight wagon in Indian Railways ?

★  Info Update
Jul 19 (10:16)
Blog Post# 4671790-0     
TheRedMind^~   Added by: TheRedMind^~  Jul 20 (09:03)
For example: 61250619336
Separate all the digits of this number starting left to right and name them as C1, C2, C3, etc. till the last digit.

6 -- C1
1 -- C2
2 -- C3
5 -- C4
0 -- C5
6 -- C6
1 -- C7
9 -- C8
3 -- C9
3 -- C10
6 -- C11
Part I:-
6 -- C1
1 -- C2
61 -- C1 C2
It indicates the type of wagon (BCNA/BOXN/BOBYN/BOSTHMS/BTPN).
For example: '61' indicates BLCA Wagon.
Part II:-
2 -- C3
5 -- C4
25 -- C3 C4
It indicates the owning railway of the wagon (Central Railways/Eastern Railways/Defence/Private Parties).
For example: '25' indicates a wagon owned by CONCOR.
P.S.: For more clarity on the first four digits, kindly go through the next answer on this question.
Part III:-
0 -- C5
6 -- C6
06 -- C5 C6
It indicates the year of manufacture of the wagon.
For example: '06' indicates a manufacturing year of 2006.
Part IV:-
1 -- C7
9 -- C8
3 -- C9
3 -- C10
1933 -- C7 C8 C9 C10
It indicates the individual serial number of the wagon.
0001 - 0999 -- Used for departmental freight wagons
1000 - 9999 -- Used for all other freight wagons
For example:-
'1933' indicates a freight wagon used for non-departmental activities.
Part V:-
6 -- C11
Step 1 : Starting from the left, add all the Characters in the even position. S1 = C2 + C4 + C6 + C8 + C10.
Step 2 : Multiply the sum by 3 to get 3×S1.
Step 3 : Starting from the left, add all the Characters in the odd position. S2 = C1 + C3 + C5 + C7 + C9.
Step 4 : Add the sum of step 2 to the sum of step 3 to get S4= 3×S1+S2.
Step 5 : Round this total up to the next multiple of 10.
Step 6 : The check digit is the number required to the added to round up to the next multiple of 10.
For example:-
Let the wagon number be 61250619336.
Step 1:-
1 -- C2
5 -- C4
6 -- C6
9 -- C8
3 -- C10
S1 = 1+5+6+9+3 = 24
Step 2:-
3XS1 = 3X24 = 72
Step 3:-
6 -- C1
2 -- C3
0 -- C5
1 -- C7
3 -- C9
S2 = 6+2+0+1+3 = 12
Step 4:-
S4 = 3XS1 + S2 = 72+12 = 84
Step 5:-
Next 10th multiple of 84 = 90
Step 6:-
Check digit = 90-84 = 6
Hence, the 11th digit assigned to this freight wagon is '6'.

Jul 19 (10:39)
Blog Post# 4671790-1     
TheRedMind^~   Added by: TheRedMind^~  Jul 20 (09:03)
Part I: First two digits (C1, C2)
Number allotted to different freight wagons are as follows:-
WAGONS (10-29)
10 -- BOXN
11 -- BOXNHA
12 -- BOXNHS
13 -- BOXNCR
14 -- BOXNLW
15 -- BOXNB
16 -- BOXNF
17 -- BOXNG
18 -- BOY
19 -- BOST
20 -- BOXNAL
21 -- BOSTHS
22 -- BOXNHL
24 -- BOXNS
30 -- BCNA
31 -- BCNAHS
32 -- BCCNR
40 -- BTPN
41 -- BTPNHS
42 -- BTPGLN
43 -- BTALN
44 -- BTCS
45 -- BTPH
46 -- BTAP
47 -- BTFLN
55 -- BRNA
56 -- BRNAHS
57 -- BFNS
58 -- BOMN
59 -- BRSTH
60 -- BFAT
61 -- BLCA
62 -- BLCB
63 -- BLLA
64 -- BLLB
65 -- BRS
66 -- BFU
68 -- BCL
69 -- BCLA
70 -- BOBYN
72 -- BOBRN
74 -- BOBRAL
75 -- BOBSN
80 -- BWTB
81 -- MBWT
82 -- DBKM
83 -- MBWZ
BRAKE VANS (85-89)
85 -- BZVC
86 -- BVZI
Part II: Next two digits (C3, C4)
Number allotted to different types of owners are as follows:-
01 -- Central Railways (C.R.)
02 -- Eastern Railways (E.R.)
03 -- Northern Railways (N.R.)
04 -- North Eastern Railways (N.E.R.)
05 -- Northeast Frontier Railways (N.F.R.)
06 -- Southern Railways (S.R.)
07 -- South Eastern Railways (S.E.R.)
08 -- Western Railways (W.R.)
09 -- South Central Railways (S.C.R.)
10 -- East Central Railways (E.C.R.)
11 -- North Western Railways (N.W.R.)
12 -- East Coast Railways (E.Co.R.)
13 -- North Central Railways (N.C.R.)
14 -- South East Central Railways (S.E.C.R.)
15 -- South Western Railways (S.W.R.)
16 -- West Central Railways (W.C.R.)
24 -- Defence
25 -- C.O.N.C.O.R.
26 -- Private Parties
Jul 18 (13:10)
Ticket Booking/E-Ticketing

Entry# 2254     
Flexi Fare (Dynamic Pricing) System for Premium (Rajdhani/Duronto/Shatabdi) trains

Info Update
Jul 18 (09:21)
Blog Post# 4671172-0     
TheRedMind^~   Added by: TheRedMind^~  Jul 18 (13:10)
The attached document contains all the details regarding the application of Flexi Fare in the above mentioned Premium Trains.

Jul 18 (09:31)
Blog Post# 4671172-1     
TheRedMind^~   Added by: TheRedMind^~  Jul 18 (13:11)
A committee constituted by Ministry of Railways reviewed Flexi fares in Rajdhani, Shatabdi and Duronto trains and based on the recommendations Flexi fares were rationalised last week. The changes in the scheme have been implemented for journey commencing on March 15, 2019, and onwards.
The flexi fares have been rationalized as follows:

Flexi fare scheme has been discontinued from 15 trains, with average monthly occupancy of less than 50%, for full year and from 32 trains, with average monthly occupancy between 50 to 75%, during pre-defined lean period of 3 months (February, March & August).

2. The maximum cap of flexi fare scheme has been reduced to 1.4 times in all flexi fare applicable classes.

3. A graded discount has also been introduced in flexi fare trains and Humsafar trains, where class-wise occupancy is less than 60%, four days prior to scheduled departure of the train.

Jul 18 (09:33)
Blog Post# 4671172-2     
TheRedMind^~   Added by: TheRedMind^~  Jul 18 (13:11)
Here is the discount in Flexi Fare Scheme.
Jul 15 (08:54)

Entry# 2252     
What is meant by wheel slip or wheel sliding in locomotives? & What are the ways to prevent and measures to be taken?

★  Info Update
Jul 15 (08:03)
Blog Post# 4669302-0     
DineshKumar^~   Added by: DineshKumar^~  Jul 15 (09:00)
By reading this, we would have a clear understanding about wheel slipping, sliding and sand box filling
Reference :


slipping occurs when tractive effort exceeds adhesive weight whereas sliding occurs when braking effort exceeds adhesive weight. In both the situations, it is the adhesive weight playing the most important role.Adhesive weight is defined as the force that can be exerted by a wheel without slipping or sliding.

Adhesive weight = Coefficient of Adhesion x Weight

🔸️Weight is limited by track structure and permissible axle loading which in the present context of Indian Railway is 20.3T. There is a plan to go for 25T axle load in heavy haul sections. Maximum possible adhesion with advanced electronics possible had been 0.40; therefore maximum tractive effort possible is 8.12T/axle at start.

🔸️When Tractive effort is more than adhesive weight, difference in power accelerate the wheel which results into grinding action on the rail. In the similar manner, when braking effort exceeds the adhesive weight, extra braking force prevents its rotation but with continuation of linear motion which results rubbing of wheel at one location on the circumference and called development of wheel flat. Both these conditions create unsafe situations

🔴Effect of weather on Adhesion

🔸️Weather and environmental conditions plays a vital role in reducing adhesion. There are always some impurities on rail table which when interact with moisture results drop in adhesion to as low as 0.10. The other conditions that has similar effect are

🔸️Saline water dipping over the rail table from wagons during rainy season.Dry leaves are light and sucked by the draft created by the train and get crushed on the rail table. These dry leaves will get removed by the following train but if there is rain, it will get stick on the rail table resulting into drop in adhesion to very low value. Show on the picture crushing of dry as well as green leaves due to heavy storm and trains unable to negotiate gradient section of Manoharpur-Posoita Section of Chakradharpur Division of South Eastern Railway.

🔷️These conditions are seasonal during dry leave season (March-April), rainy season (July-Sept) and dew (Dec-Jan).

🔸️The condition keeps on varying from time to time in the same weather condition and is never constant. The churning effect of rolling of wheel and micro slip results in cleaning the deteriorated condition of the wheel continuously.

🔸️Experiencing wheel slip is more on circumstantial conditions of the prevailing conditions of adhesion and demand for tractive effort. Rail condition improves if a train requiring less adhesion is allowed to run in the section thus improving adhesion to benefit subsequent trains.

🔸️Statistical analysis plays an important role in identifying major causes for wheel slip based on section, weather condition at the time of wheel slip, load, type of stock, skill of the loco pilot etc.

🔷️Protection towards slipping and sliding

🔸️Protections towards wheel slip and slid lies with its early detection and reduction of tractive effort and braking effort respectively within least possible time.

🟢Wheel Slipping

🔹️The issue of protection towards wheel slip lies with traction wheels only i.e. locomotive. Different methods are used for detection of wheel slip in different class of locomotive depending on the technology that was existing at that time. With protection system invariable effective, damages on account of wheel slip is very less but may result in stalling of train if the need for tractive effort continuous to more than the adhesive weight

🔹️A slipping wheel will generate higher back emf thus less traction current and wheel slipping can be detected by comparing traction current.

🔹️All Traction Motor works in parallel in the present configuration of Locomotives.  Relay QD1 and 2 are provided which senses the TM current of 1-3  & 4-6 in WAG5A&B locos respectively and energizes when it goes more than 180A,  sensing a condition of wheel slip. Three actions takes place simultaneously namely

1. Glowing of LSP

2. Auto-sanding

3. Auto-regression of tap changer reducing TE  of all motors till such time current difference drops to 150 A. This auto-regression may be 1 to 8 notches

🔹️Loco Pilot notches up slowly in readiness to regress notches manually and resort to manual regression, if there is tendency of wheel slip.

🔹️There is no protection towards sliding and there are many instances of wheel flat on locomotive. Preventive methods followed are

🔹️Isolation of loco brake when ever train brakes are applied by pressing a pedalIsolation of loco air brake whenever dynamic brakes are used.Reducing braking effort when ever locomotive  brakes are applied in synchronism to train brake.Protection in WAG9 and WAG6 class of locomotive

🔹️WAG6 class of locomotive are Thyrister based with DC separately excited series motor and WAG9 class of locomotive is equipped with GTO/IGBT with regeneration. Detection, reduction and restoration of TE goes simultaneously thus making best utilisation of adhesion available. WAG9 class of locomotive is equipped with slide control also during regenerative braking.

🔹️There is no protection for wheel slide on coaching and wagon stock. Therefore there are more chances of wheel skidding for any malfunctioning of braking system. In recently introduced LHB coaching stock, slide control is provided and braking effort of the effected wheel is reduced on detection of wheel slide.

🔶️Coefficient of Adhesion vs speed

🔷️Coefficient of adhesion varies with speed as per the empirical formula given below:

🔹️It may be seen that the coefficient of friction reduces to 90%, 78% and 69% at speed of 10, 30 and 100 kmph respectively.  Coaching trains running at 100 kmph experiences wheel slip even with slight dew on track.

🔹️Driving Techniques to prevent wheel slipping and stalling of trainsBe alert while working on up gradesAttack the gradient using full acceleration reserve (full use of short term thermal rating of the traction motor) to attain maximum permissible/possible speed before the start of the gradient.  A train running with a speed V possesses a velocity head of app.

🔹️Factor 0.78 accounts for the head loss due to natural train resistance. Velocity head gives the idea the train will climb the vertical distance if allowed to roll freely.

🔹️A train running at 60 kmph or 16.66 m/sec  possesses velocity head of meaning thereby that the train will climb a distance of 1.1km if allowed to roll on 1:100 gradient.

🔹️ Total number of stretches on the entire Indian Railway territory may not be many and Railways shall consider increasing the maximum permissible speed on a stretch of 4 km before and few km on  the grade.This arrangement will help in negotiating the gradient with application of less tractive effort which in all probability be within adhesive weight during inclement weather.


In Indian Railway context, sanding is one of the important design and functional requirement to improve adhesion between rail and wheel during traction. The requirement has gone so deep in the background of policy makers that it is difficult to believe a traction equipment without sanding gear. Any case of an investigation into wheel slipping/stalling  starts with the question of working of sanders and finishes there itself. The working of sanders is one of the item of the drive before the onset of monsoon and winter dew.  Unfortunately, to what extent it has benefited, has never been  studied or analyse
Oct 14 2018 (10:04)

Entry# 2130     
Factors considered for making a loco link, Process of making a loco link, Calculation of locos requirement

Jul 14 (09:23)
Blog Post# 4668683-1     
TheMadrasMail^~   Added by: Amogh^~  Jul 14 (12:39)
The loco link is decided based on several factors -
1) Load charts - Based on the gradients, curves and track restrictions on a route, the officials prepare load charts that decide the locomotive power required for various loads (rake length, rake weight) on that route.
2) The schedule of the train combined with the load chart, decides the minimum requirements of the loco link for a train. Any locomotive that meets these minimum requirements can be allotted to the train.
The other important factor is the locomotive utilization and availability. Bascially, keeping a loco idle, is a waste of money for IR. So, a locomotive must always be used to the maximum possible extent. This won't be possible if they add restrictions like the train should only be run by its own zone's loco.
So locos are allotted based on availability at the trip shed and in such a way as to ensure maximum utilization of the locomotive fleet.

In recent years, due to the addition of HOG, WAP7's have become the preferred choice for many trains. In these cases, the loco class is being picked based on secondary features like HOG. In terms of schedule and load, other locomotives will also be able to do the ob like a WAP7.

★  General Travel
Oct 14 2018 (05:26)
Blog Post# 3897513-0     
Saurabhdubey_86^~   Added by: Vishwanath_BAY^~  Oct 14 2018 (10:04)
What are the factors that decide loco link of a train?
Caculating the minimum availability based on the formula given in pic, loco shed with
Whom lsa is to be done is chosen
Source : Guide book on operation of electric locomotives by O.P. Kesari
Jul 14 (09:34)

Entry# 2248     
Role of Indian Railways Personnel Service(IRPS)

Info Update
Jul 14 (09:05)
Blog Post# 4668680-0     
Amogh^~   Added by: Amogh^~  Jul 14 (09:34)
Role of Indian Railway Personnel Service

IRPS officers man the Establishment Directorate and the Personnel department of the Ministry of Railways, at Zonal railway and divisional levels including the railway production units and workshops. While other services in the railway are concerned with the operational or material management of the train, the Personnel Service handles the human resource aspect.

main functions and responsibility of IRPS Officers in the railway is

1. To recruit staff through RRB/RRC

2. Training of staff

3. Promotion, demotion, transfers etc.

4. Disciplinary actions

5. Retirement, settlement

5. Conducting departmental promotions

6. Managing good industrial relations with trade unions and to see welfare of close to 1.4 million railway employees and their families .

7.Dealing with provisions of various laws and acts such as Industrial dispute Act, Factory Act, Workman Compensation Act, Payment of Wages, Minimum Wages and their implementation. The interpretation of rules and orders is also their responsibility.

8.All matters concerning the welfare of the staff such as: 1. Quarters and colony management 2. canteen/s management 3. Holiday homes 4. consumer societies 5. School/s management 6. clubs 7. Institutes 8. Hospitals etc.

9. To Promote cultural activities, sports, scouts and guides etc. They are commissioners of scouts and guides in respective jurisdictions.
Page#    1642 FAQs  next>>

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